Used of Beeswax Foundation Press and Mill Rollers

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It goes without saying that Langstroth beehives are popular in beekeeping. They make use of beehive frames often made of wood. Some beekeepers add foundation wax in sheets to the beehive frames. Foundation helps bees draw wax faster on the frames. It also helps bees make cells of an even predetermined size as they draw comb on frames. You can make your own foundation sheets from beeswax. The wax can be bought or produced from your own beehives. For this, you can use a beeswax foundation press or a mill roller. This article takes you through making foundation using the best beeswax foundation press and mill rollers.

What is a Beeswax Foundation Press?

Beeswax Foundation Press

A beeswax foundation press is an equipment used to make beehive frame foundation sheets. It requires wax to be poured onto a holding area and then pressed. Two plates of the foundation press come together and press wax between them. The plates have impressions on them that leave a pattern of cells on the resulting sheet of wax.

Pros and Cons of Using a Beeswax Foundation Press


  • A foundation press uses raw wax that is melted. It does not need you to make sheets of the wax beforehand.
  • Using a foundation press gives you foundation sheets that are squared. Very little trimming is required after you make the foundation sheet in the press. The sheets are also very strong and flat.
  • Very few moving parts are found on a foundation press. It is easy to service and repair. A foundation press has fewer points of weakness that a mill roller. It does not break down easily.


  • Making foundation sheets with a foundation press requires wax to be heated to its melting point. This means the beekeeper works with heat nearby. The hot boiler and melted wax can be hazardous when the beekeeper using the foundation press is not careful.
  • With a foundation press, the beekeeper has to manage the wax boiler and the foundation press simultaneously.

How to Use a Beeswax Foundation Press

Using a beeswax foundation press is a simple and straightforward process. With the right setup, work progresses fast. You should set up your foundation press on a flat surface so that the foundation sheets you make have even thickness. Any spills of wax should be routed back to the boiler. The press is therefore best set at a height that is higher than, and just above the wax boiler you are using.

The equipment you need includes a wax scraper, an air blower, a hand spray can and a measuring tape. Follow these steps to make foundation sheets using the press:

  1. Open the press and clean it. Remove any leftover wax from previous use. Dust too should be removed from the plates of the press. It is best to also clean the press immediately after use, so that you have less cleaning to do next time you want to use the press.
  2. Using a hand spray can, apply some water with a little detergent onto the plates of the press. This helps make sure the wax sheet does not stick to the plates. It eases removal of the wax foundation sheet in later steps of the process.
  3. Pour wax onto the bottom unmoving plate of the foundation press. A strong plastic cup or other suitable container can be used. Do not use iron or brass with wax. Make sure that there is enough wax on the bottom plate. Some spill-over is good since it assures you that there is enough wax for the foundation sheet in the press. If you do not pour in enough wax, the foundation sheet will be uneven or smaller than it should be.
  4. After pouring in enough wax into the foundation press, lower the moving plate of the press. It comes on top of the bottom plate. The two plates enclose wax between them. Press down the upper plate to squeeze out any air trapped under it. Some wax might be squeezed out of the press too at this stage. Make sure to press down firmly so that the foundation sheet you make will have even thickness.
  5. Scrape off any wax spills from the foundation press. The wax is returned into the boiler.
  6. Using an air blower, separate the upper plate of the foundation press from the foundation sheet you just pressed. Aim the jet of air between the wax sheet and the upper plate of the press.
  7. Use the air blower to separate the sheet of foundation wax from the bottom plate of the press. You can lift the sheet as you go so that separated sections do not rest on the press plate again.
  8. Place your sheet of foundation on a flat surface. Trim off any excess sheet and return the wax into the boiler.

Tips for Best Results

  • Use only a little detergent in your spray water.
  • If you do not have an air blower and compressor, you can use an edged tool to pry the foundation sheet from the press. This however risks making an impression or marks on the foundation sheet.
  • For best results, one or two hinges of the foundation press are elongated to project from the upper press plate. The projecting part works as a handle to help you press down on the foundation press once you have poured wax into it.
  • A block of wood or metal that is the exact size of desired foundation sheets is used to make trimming faster. Place the block of wood on the finished sheet and cut off any excess foundation sheet.


What is a Beeswax Mill Roller?

Beeswax Mill Roller

A beeswax mill roller is equipment that is used to make impressions in a sheet of wax. It features two roller drums that make cell outlines on two sides of a wax sheet. The rollers are fixed close together horizontally on a frame made using various materials including cast iron. On the surface of the rollers is a honeycomb cell design that is embossed onto beeswax foundation sheet that is passed between the rollers. The sheet is then trimmed and used as foundation sheet in Langstroth beehives.

Pros and Cons of Using a Beeswax Mill Roller


  • Beeswax mill rollers can be used to make foundation sheets from long sheets of wax. Once cell outlines have been made, the sheet of foundation wax is cut into smaller sheets that will fit into your beehive frames.
  • A beeswax mill roller does not require you to have a wax boiler nearby. This eliminates the risk of fire during work. It also allows the beekeeper to fully concentrate on working the mill roller.
  • Foundation sheets made using a mill roller have a very uniform thickness.


  • With a beeswax mill roller, you need to have prepared sheets of wax beforehand. In use, the sheet is later trimmed after rolling. This makes the use of mill rollers to have many activities that the beekeeper has to carry out.
  • There are 2 drum rollers on a mill roller. They are rotated continuously in the process of using the mill roller. These moving parts require frequent maintenance servicing and lubricating. They are also likely to break down when handled roughly. If the two drums become slightly misaligned, the foundation sheets made using the mill roller are not uniformly thick and may warp.
  • Hand cranking the mill roller can leave you very tired. This is especially important if you have to make many foundation sheets for a large beekeeping operation.
  • Warping of foundation sheets from the mill roller requires trimming and flattening later on. The sheets may remain warped in some places and cause bees to make uneven comb.

How to Use a Beeswax Mill Roller

Follow these steps to make beeswax foundation sheets using a mill roller:

  1. Set up your mill roller on a flat surface. A mill roller is best used while attached to a shallow bed that can hold some water.
  2. Add water with a little detergent in it onto the shallow bed of your mill roller. The water is useful to wet sheets of wax so that they do not stick to the roller drums.
  3. Wet the roller drums with detergent water. To make sure the entire drum roller surface is wet, rotate the drums as you apply the water. A sponge or other absorbent material can be used as needed.
  4. Place your previously prepared sheet of beeswax on the water bed of the mill roller. Make sure it is wet on both sides with detergent water.
  5. Pass the sheet of wax between the two roller drums. Have them enter the mill on the bottom side so that they are pressed with cell outlines and released upwards. Once the sheet of beeswax is caught between the drum rollers, crank the rollers so that the sheet is passed between the drums.
  6. The sheet of beeswax may come out wrapped around one of the drums. Pry it away and continue cranking the drum rollers. As more of the sheet passes between the drums, you receive it on the upper side of the mill roller using one hand.
  7. When the entire sheet has passed through the mill roller drums, lay it on the bed of the mill roller so it gets wet again. Flatten out any warps and then trim off excess widths from the sheet.


  • Mill rollers are precision equipment. An exact distance between the roller drums allows wax sheets to pass through the drums and be pressed with the outline of cells. This requires you to have sheets of wax that are of exact thickness.
  • If too thin, the sheets of wax will not get properly impressed with the outline of cell. They may also not be properly caught between the drum rollers and therefore give poor overall results.
  • If the sheets of beeswax are too thick, they may not pass through the mill roller drums. Even when they do, the sheet is excessively warped and elongated due to the extra wax.


Best Beeswax Foundation Press and Mill Rollers

3. Beeswax Foundation Press (Cell Size 5.4mm/4.9mm)

Best Beeswax Foundation Press - Beeswax Foundation Press (Cell Size 5.4mm/4.9mm)

This 200 x 420mm beeswax foundation press is a honeycomb cell pattern imprinting machine. It comes in form of two plates with a hinge between them. The plates are easy to mount on a beeswax foundation press frame. They work well and give nicely imprinted beeswax foundation sheets.

The metal used to make beeswax foundation press plates is a major consideration. It comes into contact with the beeswax and should be food safe. These plates are made using hard aluminium alloy that is indeed food safe. It does not react with wax or harm it in any way. The hardness of the aluminium alloy metal prevents the plates from warping in use even when a lot of pressure is applied on them during pressing. The aluminium alloy also releases wax foundation sheets with ease once you have pressed them.

This beeswax foundation press plate gives you large-sized foundation sheets. You can then trim them to fit your beehive frames. The press gives you sheets that can fit anything from shallow to deep beehive frames of Langstroth beehives. It imprints a uniform cell size of 5.4mm in the foundation sheets. This gives you large bees that are great at foraging and defending the hive. You also have the option of going for plates that imprint a cell size of 4.9mm. The smaller size of bees helps with Varroa mite control in beehives. These plates with hinges weigh a total of approximately 15kg. They are easy to use and give you very nicely pressed foundation sheets.

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2. Beeswax Foundation Sheet Embossing Machine (Cell Size: 5.3mm)

Beeswax Foundation Sheet Embossing Machine

The 220 x 420mm Beeswax Foundation Sheet Embossing Machine is a great tool for beekeepers who are looking to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of their operations. This machine provides a fast and easy way to create high-quality beeswax foundation sheets, which are essential for promoting healthy honeybee colonies and maximizing honey production. The machine features a 5.3mm eye comb foundation press, which embosses the wax with precise detail, resulting in perfectly formed and uniform comb cells.

One of the standout features of this machine is its ease of use. It requires minimal training to get started and provides consistent results every time. The manual operation makes it easy to control the pressure and speed of the embossing process, ensuring that every foundation sheet is of the highest quality. Additionally, the compact and durable design of this machine makes it ideal for beekeepers who need to transport their equipment to different apiaries.

Another advantage of this beeswax foundation machine is that it helps to conserve resources. By producing high-quality foundation sheets, beekeepers can reduce the amount of time and resources that are spent on repairing and replacing damaged or poorly formed comb. Additionally, the machine also helps to conserve wax by ensuring that every drop of wax is put to good use.

In conclusion, the 220 x 420mm Beeswax Foundation Sheet Embossing Machine is a fantastic investment for anyone who is serious about beekeeping. Its combination of ease of use, consistent results, and resource conservation make it an essential tool for beekeepers of all levels. Whether you are a seasoned professional or just starting out, this machine is sure to help you create the best possible foundation sheets for your beehives and promote healthy, productive honeybee colonies.

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1. Beeswax Sheets Mill Machine Manual Roller Press (Cell Size 5.0 mm)

Beeswax Sheets Mill Machine Manual Roller Press

The Beeswax Sheets Mill Machine Manual Roller Press is a standout tool for beekeepers who are looking for a more efficient and effective way to create the foundation sheets for their beehives. This machine provides a manual roller press that makes it easy to produce high-quality, consistent bee nest foundation sheets every time. The 5.0mm cell size is ideal for promoting healthy honeybee colonies and maximizing honey production.

One of the standout features of this machine is its user-friendly design. It is easy to use, even for those who are new to beekeeping. The manual roller press is smooth and precise, allowing you to create perfectly formed cells with ease. Additionally, the compact and durable design of this machine means that it can be easily transported to different apiaries and can withstand the rigors of regular use.

Another advantage of the Beeswax Sheets Mill Machine Manual Roller Press is that it helps to reduce waste. By creating high-quality foundation sheets, beekeepers can reduce the amount of time and resources that are spent on repairing and replacing damaged or poorly formed comb. Additionally, the machine also helps to conserve wax by ensuring that every drop of wax is put to good use.

Overall, the Beeswax Sheets Mill Machine Manual Roller Press is an excellent investment for anyone who is serious about beekeeping. Whether you are a seasoned professional or just starting out, this machine is sure to help you create the best possible foundation sheets for your beehives. With its combination of user-friendly design, consistent results, and waste reduction capabilities, the Beeswax Sheets Mill Machine Manual Roller Press is an essential tool for beekeepers of all levels.

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A DIY Beeswax Foundation Press

Making your own wax foundation press for your beekeeping operation is possible. You can make one using locally available materials. It is easier than making a roller mill. The major equipment required is drilling and joinery equipment. One way to go about making a DIY wax foundation press is to purchase the press plates. Commercially available press plates have a honeycomb cell impression on them and are ready to use. You then make the mounting frame for the press plates, hinges and other parts that are required. This saves you from having to go through the process of making moulds.

If you have the proper knowledge and are willing to, you can make your own press plates for your DIY wax foundation press. The plates should be made from a honey-friendly metal. Iron, copper and brass should be avoided. If you can get it, stainless steel is the best metal to use. The press plates should be of a size big enough to allow pressing of beeswax foundation sheets for shallow, medium and deep frames.

Molding the press plates for a beeswax foundation press requires working with high temperatures that can melt metals. It also needs you to know about the making of casts and negatives. The process is on the other hand very rewarding because you make plates with your preferred cell sizes. You can make many plates that are interchangeable on the mounting for the foundation press. The plate to be used is chosen based on the size of honeycomb cells you want on the foundation sheets.

Pros of a DIY Beeswax Foundation Press

  • You can make the mounting frame for press plates to take different plates. This allows you to make foundation sheets that have differently sized honeycomb cell outlines. You therefore easily go for smaller or larger bees than usual. It is also possible that you go for more drone comb than worker comb.
  • By making the foundation press by yourself, you learn all there is about its structure and weaknesses. In the event of a break down, you are able to easily solve the problem and get the beeswax foundation press working again.

Cons of a DIY Beeswax Foundation Press

  • The process of making the press is long and tedious. Despite the rewards at the end of it, it might sometimes be better to purchase a foundation press that is ready to be put to work as soon as it is delivered.
  • Lack of some required equipment or materials may make you use alternatives that are of lower quality. This affects the final foundation press you make. It might breakdown often, or not give very good results in the beeswax foundation sheets you press using it.


Making beeswax foundation sheets is an important step in adding value to beehive products. You can do it to make foundation sheets for your own use, or to sell to other beekeepers. Using a beeswax foundation press or mill roller is easy. It can be done by both beginner beekeepers and experienced beekeepers. Foundation allows you to give your honeybees a head start in drawing comb. It also guides the bees on the plane on which to draw comb so that you do not have a lot of cross comb in the beehive. Use this information about the best beeswax foundation press and mill rollers to boost the productivity and returns of your beekeeping operation.

Have you ever used any of the above beeswax foundation presses or mill rollers before? Leave a comment below and let us know your thoughts.

About Michael Simmonds

Michael Simmonds is an American beekeeper with more than two decades of experience in beekeeping. His journey with bees began in his youth, sparking a lifelong passion that led him to start his own apiary at the tender age of 15. Throughout the years, Simmonds has refined his beekeeping skills and has accumulated a wealth of knowledge concerning honeybee biology and behavior. Simmonds' early exposure to beekeeping ignited a fascination with these pollinators, influencing his decision to establish BeeKeepClub in 2016. The website was created with the aim to serve as the ultimate resource for beginners interested in beekeeping. Under Simmonds' guidance, BeeKeepClub provides comprehensive information to novices, including the basics of beekeeping, the different types of bees and hives, the selection of hive locations, and the necessary beekeeping equipment. In addition, the site offers detailed reviews of beekeeping tools to help enthusiasts make informed decisions and get the best value for their investment​​. His contributions to the beekeeping community through BeeKeepClub are substantial, offering both educational content and practical advice. The website covers a wide array of topics, from starting an apiary to harvesting honey, all reflecting Simmonds' extensive experience and passion for the field. Simmonds’ approach is hands-on and educational, focusing on the importance of understanding bees and the environment in which they thrive. His work not only guides beginners through their beekeeping journey but also reflects a commitment to the well-being of bees. Michael Simmonds has dedicated a significant part of his life to bees and beekeeping, and through BeeKeepClub, he has made this knowledge accessible to a broader audience. His work undoubtedly embodies a blend of expertise, authority, and trustworthiness in the realm of beekeeping.
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3 years ago

I didn’t see any comment in the pros and cons about the difference in brittleness of rolled versus pressed. I use a Herzog press and the resulting sheets are brittle. Rolling changes the crystalline structure making the wax less brittle.

2 years ago

I had hoped for a some guidance about what system is better for larger production runs, cost of equipment, time involved, etc. I’m looking to get into a small business and need some answers to these questions.

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